Aldus apparently did not make the trip, but in December 1512, Frederick the Wise wrote to Aldus, and Spalatin prepared the Latin text. Contarini and Pole had both corresponded with Erasmus, and Paul III offered to make him a cardinal on one occasion. Paul V's efforts to overturn the traditional authority of the Venetian state in ecclesiastical practice resulted in Venetian resistance and precipitated the Interdict crisis. Giorgi, accompanied by the Hebrew scholar Marco Raphael, journeyed to England, where they arrived in 1531; Giorgi remained at the English court until his death in 1540. Previously Jews had been restricted to the role of moneylenders on the terraferma. ], This was Luther’s celebrated explication of Paul’s Letter to the Romans I.17: “For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.” This passage was ripped out of scriptural and traditional context and made the total passkey. (Dittrich, p. 456) Giorgi and Raphael were clearly acting for the Signoria and the Council of Ten. Spalatin appears as Luther’s interlocutor in theology (“he influenced Luther very strongly in the direction of clarity,” says Hoess), but his adviser and indeed his controller in matters of political tactics and strategy. It was characterized by new explorations of form , light and shadow, and dramatic intensity . It was also at this time that the Jewish community of Venice came into existence. The third is bad because we many times distort what is into what we would like, rather than adjusting what we would like to what is. Reginald Pole, “Epistolae ” (Farnborough, 1967). They were considering the interests of his subjects more than his, and seemed to think princes bound by the same principles as private persons were. There was the papal legate Vergerio. John Leon Lievsay, “Venetian Phoenix: Paolo Sarpi and Some of his English Friends (1606-1700)” (Wichita, Kansas, 1973). This was the signal that something big was coming. Later in the century there would be the Bank of England. In 1516, a year before Luther’s Wittenberg theses, Contarini wrote De Officio Episcopi, a treatise of church reform for his friend Lippomanno, who was about to become a bishop. But the survival of the withered mummy of Venice for a century or two would be possible only if all the other European powers were thoroughly devastated. [De Mas, p. 155]. A woman’s dowry was her entire inheritance. Diodati added that “the English minister and ambassador [William Bedell, Wotton’s secretary] has been very helpful.” This letter was intercepted by Henry IV of France, who passed it to the papal nuncio, who sent it on to Rome and to the Venetian government. Some advisers wrote position papers for Frederick warning him not to take the crown, saying that “acceptance would begin a general religious war.” [Parker, p. 55] But Christian von Anhalt and his friend Camerarius answered that such a war was inevitable anyway as soon as the twelve years’ truce between the Spanish and the Dutch ran out. The morals and the beliefs of the population were very much influenced by the Catholic Church.This is remarkable given the corruption and the dec… Research seminar series 2015-16; Speaker: Faith Trend (University of Birmingham). 265-68] At a deeper level, Venice wanted a catastrophic general war in Europe from which Venice could hold aloof, thus surviving at least until the process of the metastasis of the fondi into northern Europe could be completed – until the time, say, of the founding of the Bank of England at the end of the 1600s. Contarini had helped entertain Agostino Chigi when he was negotiating that vital loan. Jews were obliged to live in the quarter called the ghetto, whose residents were subjected to special discriminatory laws and were obliged to wear a yellow star of David. In the Camaldolese monastery of Monte Corona above Frascati in the summer of 1943, the German scholar Hubert Jedin, acting on the advice of Giuseppe de Luca, discovered 30 letters from Gasparo Contarini to the Cambai Camaldolese, Giustinian and Quirini. Italians went to mass and took part in religious festivals. One of Fludd’s friends was a certain German Rosicrucian alchemist named Michael Maier, who was reputed to be close to the Hapsburg Emperor Rudolph II. Many ideas common to this group were expressed in a tract called the Beneficio di Cristo, and were popular among Benedictines. By 1565, there were no fewer than seven Venetian cardinals, one of the largest if not the largest national caucus. Dedicated to advancing the dialogue between faith and reason, Catholic University seeks to discover and impart the truth through excellence in teaching and research. The Counter-Reformation (Latin: Contrareformatio ), also called the Catholic Reformation (Latin: Reformatio Catholica ) or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. This is similar to Luther’s starting point. As for Sarpi, his “History of the Council of Trent” was first published in English in London in an edition dedicated to King James I, and translated by Nathaniel Brent. [Bouwsma, p. 212], Paruta’s treatment of the fall of the Roman empire appears to be the starting point for Gibbon: “This stupendous apparatus, constructed over a long course of years through the great virtue and the many exertions of so many valorous men, had finally run the course common to human things, that is to be dissolved and to fall to earth; and with its ruin it brought on the greatest revolution in things.” [Bouwsma, p. 283], In religion, Sarpi and his right-hand man, Fulgenzio Micanzio, were very much Spirituali on the ex sola fede line of justification. The main representatives of the Counter-Reformation were: 1. The career and writings of Agostino Steuco (1497-1548) offer an exceptionally rich example of how ties of patronage and specific political and social institutions shaped a Counter-Reformation humanist's views on reform. Giorgi is reputed to have contributed mightily to the initiation of a school of Venetian pseudo- Platonic mysticism in England. Preface -- by Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr. January 9, 1993 Introduction The evaluation of the respective roles of the Protestant and Catholic churches, in respect to the sixteenth-century schisms between Reformation and Counter Reformation, requires a few points of emphasis for clarity. Francesco Toledo, a professor at the Collegio Romano, attributed to Aristotle’s logic a perfection so total that “scarcely anyone has surpassed him in any point.” “Moreover,” added Toledo, “it appears that he has been more received by the church than other philosophers, especially in the last millennium; and he has been used in the instruction of youth to the exclusion of all others.” [Bouwsma, p. 296] Interestingly, Contarini’s friend Cardinal Morone was released after two years in jail and became the presiding officer of the final session of the Council of Trent. 169-171] Frederick was not the only one infected by the Rosicrucian bacillus in these years in which the saga of “Christian Rosenkreuz” first appeared in Germany. 188-242. According to such a Gnostic view, the material world is inherently bad, and only the spiritual world can be good. In August-September 1619, Frederick vacillated over whether or not to accept the Bohemian crown offered to him by Thurn and his cohorts. In any case, Henry’s death increased the tensions among the German Protestant leaders, since they had now been deprived of their protector. Giovanni Caraffa(Paul IV), founder of the Theatines and elected pope in 1555. During this period, according to one account, an emissary of the Elector of the Palatinate reported that he had been taken by the English ambassador to Venice to visit a Calvinist Congregation of more than 1,000 people in Venice, including 300 of the top patricians, of which Sarpi was the leader. “Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums” (Vienna, 1882). 274-97. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2006. The young Capodistrian, Schenk asserted, was interested in completing his legal studies at Wittenberg. These major objectives are emphasized in much of Counter-Reformatory literature, particularly women’s acquisition of strong religious morals aimed at preserving chastity until matrimony as well as the pursuit of the practical skills of “preserving” and managing their husbands’ property and wealth. They chose Frederick V, the Elector Palatine, who had his court in Heidelberg, and who, as we have seen, counted Christian von Anhalt and Christoph von Dona among his most trusted advisers. The naval victory of Lepanto in 1571 had not been sufficient to regain Cyprus from the Ottoman Empire, and Venice had been widely attacked for making a separate peace with the Ottomans. 37. The Catholic Counter Reformation Ignatius of Loyola Spain 1521 injured in war Began to think back on his sins andthe life of Jesus. He had been made cardinal by Alexander VI Borgia, usually seen by church historians as the most reprobate of the Renaissance popes. A good deal of the difference between men’s and women’s legal status derived from the patrilineal system of descent and succession. After Charles V had set the ban of the empire on Luther, Spalatin organized the coup de main which brought Luther into the safety of Frederick’s Wartburg Castle. Luther’s annotation: “This is false. H. Schroeder (Rockford, Ill., 1941). The Counter-Reformation’s success, or otherwise, depended on a number of factors but pro-reform popes was certainly a highly important one. He had captured some of the suburbs of Vienna when he was forced to retreat. Gasparo Contariniwas appointed ambassador of Venice, England, Spain and Italy. In 1590, there was a serious famine, and food supplies did not return to normal until 1594. Rosicrucians in particular were heavily present at the electoral Palatine court. When Pope Clement VII Medici, under occupation by Charles V, refused to grant an annulment, Henry VIII appealed to scholars and universities for their opinions. In August 1608, Christoph von Dona met with Sarpi in Venice, and Sarpi told Dona about the measures taken by the Giovani in 1582 to “correct” the functions of the Council of Ten and its subcommittee of three (Zonta), which up until that time had constituted a factional stronghold of the adversaries of the Giovani, who were called the Vecchi (old) and who favored a more conciliatory line towards Spain and the papacy. The Counter-Reformation (Latin: Contrareformatio), also called the Catholic Reformation (Latin: Reformatio Catholica) or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648). As for Pole, he is important because of his later role in England. “Index Librorum Prohibitorum” (Venice, 1564). As part of the scheme, Charles Diodati, one of the Italian Spirituali who had fled to Geneva, was brought to Venice to preach. Venice, as Machiavelli exulted, lost all the land it had stolen in the course of centuries. Venice’s unique social and political environment enabled women to find alternate ways of coping with the strict tenets outlined by the Counter-Reformation; however, many of these strict ideals still strongly impacted the lives of Venetian women during the sixteenth century. FALSE. In 1545 the Church opened the Council of Trent to deal with the issues raised by Luther. Their debates expanded across most of the Western Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, whilst secular critics also examined religious practice, clerical behavior and the church's doctrinal positions. One of Schenk’s most useful Italian contacts proved to be [Pier Paolo] Vergerio’s brother Giacomo, a fellow Franciscan, who told him that the eastern coast of the Adriatic was a rich hunting ground for relics and suggested that younger members of his family might be available to make deliveries to Saxony. He was able to make it effective in the Italian cities that had harbored unorthodox views, especially Venice. The Protestant Union was organized by Prince Christian of Anhalt, the senior advisor to the Elector Palatine. A total of 2,626 books or pamphlets written between 1471 and 1700 in the vernacular addressed female concerns, with over one thousand printed by 1600. The Catholic Reformation is also referred to frequently as the Counter Reformation. His announced program was the maintenance of Bohemian liberties for these nobles. You would get some pretty nasty religious conflicts as Venice without Humanism filled, right? and Counter-Reformation Italy This innovative and well-illustrated book analyses convent culture in sixteenth-century Italy through the medium of three unpublished nuns’ chronicles. Here Frederick was able to convince Maximilian to allow Luther’s case to stay in Germany. Annone Veneto, Campagna Lupia, Campolongo Maggiore, Camponogara, Caorle, Cavallino-Treporti, Cavarzere, Ceggia, Chioggia, Cinto Caomaggiore, Cona, Concordia Sagittaria, Dolo, Eraclea, Fiesso d'Artico, Fossalta di Piave, Fossalta di Portogruaro, Fossò, Gruaro, Jesolo, Marcon, Martellago, Meolo, Mira, Mirano, Musile di Piave, Noale, Noventa di Piave, Pianiga, Portogruaro, Pramaggiore, Quarto d'Altino, Salzano, San Donà di Piave, San Michele al Tagliamento, San Stino di Livenza, Santa Maria d… Antonio Socci and Tommaso Ricci, “Luther: Manichean Delirium,” in “30 Days,” 1992, II, pp. By Diana Robin. Start studying 04.04 The Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Much was made of national sovereignty, which the Venetians said they were defending against the pope in the name of all nations. To put them in perspective, let us jump from Gasparo Contarini in Venice in 1511 to Martin Luther in the tower of his Wittenberg monastery in the years 1513-1514, the years of Luther’s so-called “Thurmerlbenis” or experience in the tower, generally regarded as the starting point of the Protestant reformation. Haile, Luther: “An Experiment in Biography” (New York: Doubleday, 1980. [Yates, pp. Venice had always thrived through divide and conquer. Regardless of this opposition, however, women still managed to exert some influence on economic and social relations through the acquisition of dowries and management of the family’s wealth and income. Here Luther’s fame and following grew rapidly while he enjoyed immunity; the empire shortly went to war with France in one of the sequelae of Cambrai. In reality, the Venetians used the conflict around the Interdict to inflame the religious passions of Europe so as to set the stage for a revival of the wars of religion. 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