Equally important, rich deposits of the valuable metal silver. "La catastrophe démographique" (The Demographic Catastrophe) in. Spanish possession and rule of its remaining colonies in the Americas ended in that year with its sovereignty transferred to the United States. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. From decades of research, he made estimates for the pre-contact population and the history of demographic decline during the Spanish and post-Spanish periods. In the face of the impossibility of the Castilian institutions to take care of the New World affairs, other new institutions were created. The capital Lima was built near the Pacific coast. [102] This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.[99]. [63], After the end of the period of conquests, it was necessary to manage extensive and different territories with a strong bureaucracy. The former Caribbean colonies of the Netherlands achieved various degrees of independence within the Dutch kingdom. this page. [123] The crown expelled the Jesuits from Spain and The Indies in 1767 during the Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish recognized indigenous elites as nobles and gave them continuing standing in their communities. During the Bourbon era, even when the crown systematically appointed peninsular-born Spaniards to royal posts rather than American-born, the cabildos remained in the hands of local elites. Treasury officials were supposed to be paid out of the income from the province, and were normally prohibited from engaging in income-producing activities.[70]. [22][23] Even by the mid-1510s, the western Caribbean was largely unexplored by Spaniards. [143] A 2010 film, Even the Rain starring Gael García Bernal, is set in modern Cochabamba, Bolivia during the Cochabamba Water War, following a film crew shooting a controversial life of Columbus. Hispanic American Historical Review 53.4 (1973): 581-599. Spain’s American empire began and ended in the Caribbean, with the settlement of Española during the 1490s, and the final loss of Cuba and Puerto Rico, four centuries later, in 1898. The leader of the expedition pledged the larger share of capital to the enterprise, which in many ways functioned as a commercial firm. [124][125] When the formal institution of the Inquisition was established in 1571, indigenous peoples were excluded from its jurisdiction on the grounds that they were neophytes, new converts, and not capable of understanding religious doctrine. Marrero, Leví. Based on published primary and secondary sources. De Austrias a Borbones", Encyclopedia of Latin and mexicpo is the best History and Culture 1996, Historiography of Colonial Spanish America, Indigenous Reducciones and Spanish Resettlement: Placing Colonial and European History in Dialogue, Indigenous Puerto Rico DNA evidence upsets established history, “The Political Force of Images,” Vistas: Visual Culture in Spanish America, 1520–1820, Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories, Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spanish_colonization_of_the_Americas&oldid=991351941, Spanish exploration in the Age of Discovery, History of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In Hispaniola, the indigenous Taíno pre-contact population before the arrival of Columbus of several hundred thousand had declined to sixty thousand by 1509. Introduction. Pedro de Mendoza and Domingo Martínez de Irala, who led the original expedition, went inland and founded Asunción, Paraguay, which became the Spaniards' base. [150], The Mission was a 1996 film idealizing a Jesuit mission to the Guaraní in the territory disputed between Spain and Portugal. Spanish settlement in Mexico “largely replicated the organization of the area in preconquest times” while in Peru, the center of the Incas was too far south, too remote, and at too high an altitude for the Spanish capital. Some masters were British while others were Spanish, and French. The crown attempted to curb Spaniards' exploitation, banning Spaniards' bequeathing their private grants of indigenous communities' tribute and encomienda labor in 1542 in the New Laws. Held in the Colegio de San Gregorio, in the Spanish city of Valladolid, it was a moral and theological debate about the colonization of the Americas, its justification for the conversion to Catholicism and more specifically about the relations between the European settlers and the natives of the New World. The United States became a colonial power when they gained Cuba and Puerto Rico as a result of the Spanish-American War. A number of essays in this collection specifically address the colonial Spanish Caribbean. A central plaza had the most important buildings on the four sides, especially buildings for royal officials and the main church. Instituto Bibliográfico Mexicano 1961, Gibson, Charles. The Caribbean colonies were small, isolated and weak Schemes to increase white population constantly failed and led to a mostly black population The West Indies did not have grandeur buildings to compare with other colonies in the New World Public … As the colonial economy became more diversified and less dependent on these mechanisms for the accumulation of wealth, the indigenous noblemen became less important for the economy. In 1821 Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain and concluded the War. [131] In the Andes, Viceroy Francisco de Toledo revived the indigenous rotary labor system of the mita to supply labor for silver mining. The Spanish Caribbean and the Atlantic World in the Long Sixteenth Century breaks new ground in articulating the early Spanish Caribbean as a distinct and diverse group of colonies loosely united under Spanish rule for roughly a century prior to the establishment of other European colonies. [citation needed] In Peru, the indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6.5 million declined to 1 million by the early 17th century. Ida Altman, S.L. The conquistadors originally organized it as a captaincy general within the Viceroyalty of Peru. The capital city of a viceroyalty became of the seat of the archbishop. [99] Although constituted as the highest judicial authority in their territorial jurisdiction, they also had executive and legislative authority, and served as the executive on an interim basis. On the death, unauthorized absence, retirement or removal of a governor, the treasury officials would jointly govern the province until a new governor appointed by the king could take up his duties. In Mexico, Bishop Juan de Zumárraga prosecuted and had executed in 1539 a Nahua lord, known as Don Carlos of Texcoco for apostasy and sedition for having converted to Christianity and then renounced his conversion and urged others to do so as well. The salary of officials during the Habsburg era were paltry, but the corregidor or alcalde mayor in densely populated areas of indigenous settlement with a valuable product could use his office for personal enrichment. After the Caribbean was first colonised by Spain in the 15th century, a system of sugar planting and enslavement evolved. Columbus had promised that the region he now controlled held a huge treasure in the form of gold and spices. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. However, a sharp split existed between those born in Europe, \"peninsulars,\" and those born in the Americas, creoles. Chile was explored by Spaniards based in Peru, where Spaniards found the fertile soil and mild climate attractive. They were aggressive in making their investment pay, alienating the indigenous populations and Spaniards alike. The composition of the expedition was the standard pattern, with a senior leader, and participating men investing in the enterprise with the full expectation of rewards if they did not lose their lives. Princeton University Press, 1984. Economies from Independence to Industrialization. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indies as the monarchs granted Columbus vast powers of governance over this unknown part of the world. Whatever the case, slavery existed in the West Indies and many other parts of the New World. However, noblemen became defenders of the rights to land and water controlled by their communities. Up Next. The crown established the audiencia in 1549. [68], Beginning in 1522 in the newly conquered Mexico, government units in the Spanish Empire had a royal treasury controlled by a set of oficiales reales (royal officials). New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. Spanish universities expanded to train lawyer-bureaucrats (letrados) for administrative positions in Spain and its overseas empire. [140] With the 1992 commemoration (and critique) of Columbus, more cinematic and television depictions of the era appeared, including a TV miniseries with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus. While the British abolished slavery by 1833, Spain abolished slavery in Puerto Rico in 1873. There are many such works for Mexico, often drawing on native-language documentation in Nahuatl,[86][87] Mixtec,[88] and Yucatec Maya. [115] Presidios had a resident commanders, who set up commercial enterprises of imported merchandise, selling it to soldiers as well as Indian allies. "California Indian Characteristics". Warren, J. A well-connected settler in Cuba, Hernán Cortés received authorization in 1519 by the governor of Cuba to form an expedition of exploration-only to this far western region. As a result of this, the system of feudal Lords was abolished and the concept of nation states and nationhood was gaining momentum. Marrero 1975–1992 provides a unique overview of colonial Cuban history spanning no less than fifteen volumes. The Spanish administrative structure that prevailed for the 132 years of Spanish monopoly in the Caribbean was simple. [34] It was governed by the president of the Audiencia of Bogotá, and comprised an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia and parts of Venezuela. Other countries that held possession of various islands at different times were Portugal, Sweden, and Denmark. Each possessed a large population and a self-sustaining economy, and was well-protected by Spanish defenders. In the following years, Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization. [24][25][26], The capture of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II by Cortés was not a brilliant stroke of innovation, but came from the playbook that the Spanish developed during their period in the Caribbean. [53] The crown sought to establish and maintain control over its overseas possessions through a complex, hierarchical bureaucracy, which in many ways was decentralized. Each chapter provides a list of suggested readings, rather than footnotes. During a financial crisis in the late seventeenth century, the crown began selling Audiencia appointments, and American-born Spaniards held 45% of Audiencia appointments. Spalding, Karen. The Nahuas after the Conquest. The Spanish-American War took place in 1898, and resulted in the United States of America gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific. Why were the Caribbean colonies the "most important destinations" for English immigrants throughout the first half of the 17th century? Survivors continued to travel among indigenous groups in the North American south and southwest until 1536. In the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region. In the early 14th century there was a tremendous wave of change in Europe that prompted the emergence of a new kind of society; this change was termed as the enlightenment period. But it still leaves Spain as the major colonial power in the West Indies. New Spain also included many islands in the Caribbean Sea and the Spanish lands north of what is now Panama. Treasury officials were generally paid out of the income from the province and were normally prohibited from engaging in personal income-producing activities. But it still leaves Spain as the major colonial power in the West Indies. Silver was the bonanza the Spaniards sought. Far more famous now is Lope de Aguirre, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who was murdered. From the late 15th to the late 19th centuries, Spain controlled extensive territories in and around the Caribbean Sea, including the Greater Antilles, the mainland and islands along the Caribbean’s southern littoral, and the entire Gulf of Mexico. Spanish colonization. "Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. They also imported cane sugar, which was a high-value crop in early Spanish America. Dressing, J. David. In Mexico, refining took place in haciendas de minas, where silver ore was refined into pure silver by amalgamation with mercury in what was known as the patio process. The Franciscans arrived first in 1525 in a group of twelve, the Twelve Apostles of Mexico. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of Gran Colombia. For the period ending in 1600, the original data set showed only 357 slaves arriving in unspecified areas of Spanish America (which did not exclude those who went to important main-land ports such as Veracruz and Cartagena), 290 slaves arriving in Puerto Rico, and 582 The first expansion of territory was the conquest of the Muslim Kingdom of Granada on January 1, 1492, the culmination of the Christian Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula, held by the Muslims since 711. In areas of dense, stratified indigenous populations, especially Mesoamerica and the Andean region, Spanish conquerors awarded perpetual private grants of labor and tribute particular indigenous settlements, in encomienda were in a privileged position to accumulate private wealth. [102] Besides court of justice, the Audiencias had functions of government as counterweight the authority of the viceroys, since they could communicate with both the Council of the Indies and the king without the requirement of requesting authorization from the viceroy. [107], After the reign of Philip II, the municipal offices, including the councilors, were auctioned to alleviate the need for money of the Crown, even the offices could also be sold, which became hereditary,[108] so that the government of the cities went on to hands of urban oligarchies. [72] Then the first such in 1542; the legal thought behind them was the basis of modern International law. Residences of the officials and elites were closest to the main square. Hispanic American Historical Review 50.4 (1970): 645-664. The crown asserted is authority and sovereignty of the territory and vassals it claimed, collected taxes, maintained public order, meted out justice, and established policies for governance of large indigenous populations. "[117] On the frontier of empire, Indians were seen as sin razón, ("without reason"); non-Indian populations were described as gente de razón ("people of reason"), who could be mixed-race castas or black and had greater social mobility in frontier regions. [43] Juan de Oñate expanded Spanish sovereignty over what is now New Mexico. Volumes 6–8 cover the years 1701–1763, and the remaining volumes address the period from 1763 to 1868. Europeans immigrated from various parts of Spain, and also initially more men than women. Viceroys were of high social standing, almost without exception born in Spain, and served fixed terms. Cane sugar imported from the Old World was the high value, low bulk export product that became the bulwark of tropical economies of the Caribbean islands and coastal Tierra Firme (the Spanish Main), as well as Portuguese Brazil. Mining regions in both Mexico were remote, outside the zone of indigenous settlement in central and southern Mexico Mesoamerica, but mines in Zacatecas (founded 1548) and Guanajuato (founded 1548) were key hubs in the colonial economy. The Jesuits were effective missionaries in frontier areas until their expulsion from Spain and its empire in 1767. The diocese was in turn divided into smaller units, the parish, staffed by a parish priest. Religious orders had their own internal regulations and leadership. "Hoofprints: Cattle Ranching and Landscape Transformation" in, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, Latin American economy § Colonial era and Independence (ca. In colonial Mexico, there are petitions to the king about a variety of issues important to particular indigenous communities when the noblemen did not get a favorable response from the local friar or priest or local royal officials. The crown enacted Laws of Burgos (1513) and the Requerimiento to curb the power of the Spanish conquerors and give indigenous populations the opportunity to peacefully embrace Spanish authority and Christianity. [118], During the early colonial period, the crown authorized friars of Catholic religious orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians) to function as priests during the conversion of indigenous populations. They were predominantly criollos (Americas-born people of European ancestry, mostly Spanish or Portuguese), bourgeois and influenced by liberalism and in some cases with military training in the mother country. Prominent Dominican friars in Santo Domingo, especially Antonio de Montesinos and Bartolomé de Las Casas denounced the maltreatment and pressed the crown to act to protect the indigenous populations. Gold existed in only small amounts, and the indigenous peoples died off in massive numbers. General History of the Caribbean. Most agriculture and ranching supplied local needs, since transportation was difficult, slow, and expensive. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press|1985. Works by historians in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have expanded the understanding of the impact of the Spanish conquest and changes during the more than three hundred years of Spanish rule. Spanish explorations of other islands in the Caribbean and what turned out to be the mainland of South and Central America occupied them for over two decades. Where the Spaniards had exclusive access to horses in warfare, they had an advantage over indigenous warriors on foot. [7][8][9], One source claims the Spanish conquest was responsible for 1,400,000 to 2,300,000 deaths explicitly excluding tens of millions of deaths from New World disease;[10] while Rudolph Rummel claims that 2 to 15 million indigenous peoples where killed by what he calls "democide"-(government caused murder) in the colonization of the Americas mostly in Latin America[11]-(mostly implying anywhere from just over half to all but 1 so around 1,000,001 to 14,999,999 deaths.). The colonial Spanish Caribbean is also well represented in a multivolume collection of scholarly essays addressing the region from the pre-Hispanic era to the 20th century (General History of the Caribbean), and in two textbooks of similar chronological and geographical scope (Knight 2012, Moya Pons 2007). A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción, now the capital of Paraguay. [96], In 1721, at the beginning of the Bourbon monarchy, the crown transferred the main responsibility for governing the overseas empire from the Council of the Indies to the Ministry of the Navy and the Indies, which were subsequently divided into two separate ministries in 1754. Ore was crushed with the aid of mules and then mercury could be applied to draw out the pure silver. The colony of New Spain was formed in 1535, with most of its land in Mexico and its capital in Mexico City. The Spanish Empire began its interest in the Americas upon the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492. Maya society under colonial rule: The collective enterprise of survival. The individual leaders of expeditions assumed the expenses of the venture and in return received as reward the grant from the government of the conquered territories;[62] and in addition, they received instructions about treating the indigenous peoples. "[54] Reforms sought to centralize government control through reorganization of administration, reinvigorate the economies of Spain and the Spanish empire through changes in mercantile and fiscal policies, defend Spanish colonies and territorial claims through the establishment of a standing military, undermine the power of the Catholic church, and rein in the power of the American-born elites.[55]. They were called just Españoles and Españolas, and later being differentiated by the terms indicating place of birth, peninsular for those born in Spain; criollo/criolla or Americano/Ameriana for those born in the Americas. 5, p. 453. In 1574, Philip II promulgated the Order of Patronage (Ordenaza del Patronato) ordering the religious orders to turn over their parishes to the secular clergy, a policy that secular clerics had long sought for the central areas of empire, with their large indigenous populations. Charles sought to be elected Holy Roman Emperor and was willing to pay whatever it took to achieve that. The empire stretched across the Caribbean Islands, North America, Central America, and half of South America. In the Americas, the first encomiendas were handed out by Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean. The Spanish royal government called its overseas possessions "The Indies" until its empire dissolved in the nineteenth century. Vol. There is no book-length monograph devoted to the history of the Spanish Caribbean during the entire colonial period. Cortés’s seeking indigenous allies was a typical tactic of warfare: divide and conquer. Among the most notable expeditions are Hernando de Soto into southeast North America, leaving from Cuba (1539-42); Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to northern Mexico (1540-42), and Gonzalo Pizarro to Amazonia, leaving from Quito, Ecuador (1541-42). [39], The spectacular conquests of central Mexico (1519-21) and Peru (1532) sparked Spaniards' hopes of finding yet another high civilization. [114], As the empire expanded into areas of less dense indigenous populations, the crown created a chain of presidios, military forts or garrisons, that provided Spanish settlers protection from Indian attacks. After the Caribbean was first colonised by Spain in the 15th century, a system of sugar planting and enslavement evolved. It has been estimated that over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrated to Latin America in the period between 1492 and 1824, with millions more continuing to immigrate following independence. Accessible for undergraduates and general audiences. By maintaining hierarchical divisions within communities, indigenous noblemen were the direct interface between the indigenous and Spanish spheres and kept their positions so long as they continued to be loyal to the Spanish crown. The other was the presence or absence of an exploitable resource for the enrichment of settlers. In the eighteenth-century reforms, the Viceroyalty of Peru was reorganized, splitting off portions to form the Viceroyalty of New Granada (Colombia) (1739) and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (Argentina) (1776), leaving Peru with jurisdiction over Peru, Charcas, and Chile. Spaniards waged a fifty-year war (ca. [51] In southern Chile and the pampas, the Araucanians (Mapuche) prevented further Spanish expansion. West Indies - West Indies - Colonialism: England was the most successful of the northwestern European predators on the Spanish possessions. #Cuba #PuertoRico #DominicanRepublicFor video topic suggestions email me at vbxfamilia@yahoo.com ! They pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created the initial stage of a single Spanish monarchy, completed under the eighteenth-century Bourbon monarchs. American-born elite men complained bitterly about the change, since they lost access to power that they had enjoyed for nearly a century.[100]. The bishop challenged the Jesuits' continuing to hold Indian parishes and function as priests without the required royal licenses. In 1532 at the Battle of Cajamarca a group of Spaniards under Francisco Pizarro and their indigenous Andean Indian auxiliaries native allies ambushed and captured the Emperor Atahualpa of the Inca Empire. This monumental historical geography provides a comprehensive overview of colonial Cuban history. Chapter 3 Patterns of Colonization in the New World Colonization of societies and cultures arose at different times, in different geographical areas and under different European national patronage. Warren, J. Benedict. In the seventeenth and eightee… [42] The crown later sent him to Asunción, Paraguay to be adelantado there. Although today Buenos Aires at the mouth of Rio de la Plata is a major metropolis, it held no interest for Spaniards and the 1535-36 settlement failed and was abandoned by 1541. Seeking their own share of the apparent wealth the Spanish found in the Caribbean islands, other European powers moved to establish their own settlements in the region in the seventeenth century. Volumes 1–4 focus on autochthonous societies, the 16th century, slave societies, and the 19th century, respectively. 6 vols. It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. Spaniards spent over 25 years in the Caribbean where their initial high hopes of dazzling wealth gave way to continuing exploitation of disappearing indigenous populations, exhaustion of local gold mines, initiation of cane sugar cultivation as an export product, and importation of African slaves as a labor force. On the mainland of colonies, Spain ended African slavery in the eighteenth century. Muldoon, James. Sort by: Top Voted. Peoples from Africa were bought, sold, and stolen, taken across great ships and many waters to the islands of the Caribbean, and ordered to serve their masters. Expand or collapse the "in this article" section, The Spanish Caribbean In The Colonial Period, Spanish Expansion and Early Colonial Society, Maritime Economies and Export Commodities, Urban Society in Nineteenth-Century Cuba and Puerto Rico, Expand or collapse the "related articles" section, Expand or collapse the "forthcoming articles" section, The Dutch in South America and the Caribbean. [40] In 1561, Pedro de Ursúa led an expedition of some 370 Spanish (including women and children) into Amazonia to search for El Dorado. Alcaldías mayores were larger districts with a royal appointee, the Alcalde mayor. Viceroys were responsible for good governance of their territories, economic development, and humane treatment of the indigenous populations.[98]. “Venezuela: The Colonial Era” in ‘’Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Spaniards had seen the disappearance of the indigenous populations in the Caribbean, and with that, the disappearance of their main source of wealth, propelling Spaniards to expand their regions of control. The main motivations for colonial expansion were profit through resource extraction[1] and the spread of Catholicism through indigenous conversions. [73], The Valladolid debate (1550–1551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2007. In 1895, Cuban rebels rose up against the Spanish … These could be sold in markets and thereby converted to cash. "Questionnaires from the Trial of the Second Marqués del Valle for Conspiracy, 1566" in, Fernández de Recas, Guillermo S. Cacicazgos y nobiliario indígena de la Nueva España. The exchange did not go one way. An archaeological project analyzes informal commerce in the colonial Caribbean by Universitat Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona Excavations on the island of Klein Bonaire. [139] Only the most valuable low bulk products would be exported. Indigenous Population and Justice System in Central Mexico... José María Arguedas and Early 21st Century Cultural and Po... Law and Society in Latin America since 1800, Legal History of New Spain, 16th-17th Centuries. While the Spanish and Netherlands were at war, the Spanish navy was distracted meaning England could colonize at a faster pace without trouble. Since in central and southern Mexico (Mesoamerica) and the highland Andes indigenous peoples had existing traditions of payment of tribute and required labor service, the Spanish could tap into these existing to extract wealth. The crown set the indigenous communities legally apart from Spaniards (as well as Blacks), who comprised the República de Españoles, with the creation of the República de Indios. [78][79][80][81][82], The exploitation and demographic catastrophe that indigenous peoples experienced from Spanish rule in the Caribbean also occurred Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. The crown created civil and religious structures to administer this vast territory. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 2006. In 1898, the United States achieved victory in the Spanish–American War with Spain, ending the Spanish colonial era. 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Ruling structure has sometimes been succinctly summed up as `` gold, but added a port city so inland...